frequently asked
and much more

Your patient zone: the place to find all the answers to your questions (or almost)...

We have grouped together in this (long) page practical information about your treatments and questions about your dental health: forms, post-operative advice, dental health questions and informative videos: it's all here.

You will also find information on insurance reimbursements, payment methods and our financing options.

Welcome to your patient area and enjoy reading!

Dental Forms

To save time at your next appointment, you can download these documents in PDF format and fill them out on screen with Acrobat Reader or print them out and fill them out by hand. Please note that you are asked to return them to us by email. If you have not received a Personalized Identification Number (PID) to complete these forms, please contact us as soon as possible.

Post-op guideliness

At the end of your treatment, we give you a set of personalized post-operative recommendations (in person or by email). If you ever lose this information, here are some of these files.

If you do not find the one that applies to your situation here or for more complete and precise information for your particular case, do not hesitate to call us at 450-653-4050, we will be pleased to give you more information and details!

Insurance, Payment methods and Financing

Do you offer financing plans?

Yes, we are aware that some dental treatments can be a significant expense. That's why we offer customized financing programs, regardless of the amount, including iFinance's DentalCard. Click on this link (open a new window) or ask your treatment coordinator to learn more about our plans and find the one that best meets your needs.

What payment methods are accepted at the clinic?

VISA et Marstercard

We accept Visa and MasterCard credit cards in addition to debit (Interac) and cash payments.

Can you send my insurance claims?

Yes, if you give us permission and your insurer allows it, we can forward your dental insurance claims via a secure Internet connection at the end of your appointments.

Please note, however, that treatments of crowns, bridges and occlusal plates, that involve laboratory fees, will be sent to your insurer by mail and not electronically. Our secretary will be pleased to provide you with the claim documents as well as a copy of the laboratory invoices and a post-operative X-ray (which your insurer needs to be able to proceed with your reimbursement).

We will ask you to pay your treatment in full at the end of your appointment.

The reimbursement will be sent to you directly according to the terms of your insurance contract.

Do I have to pay you in full at the end of my appointment and seek reimbursement from my insurance afterwards?


Yes and no... We will ask you to pay your treatment in full at the end of your appointment. However, if you give us permission and your insurer allows it, we will forward your dental insurance claim via a secure Internet connection at the end of your appointment in order for you to receive your reimbursement as soon as possible.

The reimbursment will be sent to you directly according to the terms of your insurance contract.

What information do I need to know about my insurance coverage?

The relationship between you and your insurance is confidential, we recommend that you check the following points with your insurer before your visit, as we cannot do it on your behalf:

  • What is the maximum annual allowance for your dental treatment?
  • What is the maximum annual allowance for dental examinations (code 01200) and prophylaxis (code 11300) performed?
  • What is the number of annual descaling units covered by your insurance?
  • What is the percentage of coverage for minor treatments?
  • What is the percentage of coverage for major treatments?

Dental health FAQ

Are you afraid to go to the dentist?

fear of the dentist: we put you at ease

Fear of the dentist is a fairly common phobia. Anticipating the visit to your dentist and the pain you may experience can be very stressful. Sometimes this can lead you to delay or even give up going to the dentist, and wait... until it is too late.

Waiting is not the right solution, however, because problems then have time to settle deeper, to the point they can also affect your overall health (look for periodontal disease further down). Often waiting too long lead to more important and more expensive treatments.

We are used to treating anxious patients and young children. We help you prepare for your appointment and we do everything we can to give you confidence and limit the inconvenience during your treatment. Come and meet us to talk with our dentists and hygienists to better understand the solutions that exist to help you and to establish this essential bond of trust between you and us!

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What is a dental cavity and how to prevent it?

Cavity is an infectious disease that attacks the hard tissues of the tooth. It is the most common disease in the world and can even affect children as soon as their first teeth appear! It is also the main cause of toothache.

Cavities are caused by the sugars in the food and beverages we consume, which in turn are processed by the bacteria in our mouth. This transformation produces acid that attacks the surface of the teeth by digging almost invisible holes. Good dental hygiene, brushing teeth after each meal and flossing every day, helps to control the "work" of bacteria and reduce the risk of cavities.

Once below the tooth surface, cavities can spread for a period of time without causing symptoms. When the tooth starts to hurt, the cavity is already installed and it is necessary to intervene to prevent it from progressing even further. As a general rule, the earlier the intervention, the more likely it is that the treatment will be minimal.

During our dental exams, we use the Diagnodent to detect cavities at an early stage. Finding cavities early allows us to minimize the treatment required to reduce them.

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Gum Inflammation? Bleeding gum? Loosened teeth? What are the signs of periodontal disease?

The gum and jaw bone asupport our teeth and hold them in place. The bacteria in our mouth can, if we are not careful, play a very bad trick on them by causing infections which, if left untreated, can have serious consequences on our health in the long term.

When the gums become infected, they become redder and may bleed when brushing or flossing, for example. This bacterial inflammation is called gingivitis. With proper care and dental hygiene, it is easily cured.

If the jaw bone is also affected by the infection, it deteriorates and pockets form around the tooth, allowing bacteria to infiltrate even further. The tooth may also be exposed on its root. This disease is called periodontitis. It is more difficult to treat.

Periodontal diseases can have a negative impact on other diseases with the spread of oral bacteria to our bodies. Links have been established with respiratory infections, heart disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, and cerebral embolism.

How to avoid this? First of all, by maintaining a good oral hygiene that combines brushing and flossing. Then by controlling as much as possible the aggravating factors such as smoking or stress. Finally, by having your teeth and gums regularly checked by a dental hygienist.

Indeed, our hygienists, during your cleaning examination, check the condition of your gums and measure the depth of the pockets around your teeth to detect periodontal diseases. If necessary, they will recommend you to follow our periodontal treatment protocol to help you regain control.

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What is plaque? And tartar?

Plaque is the whitish substance that accumulates on teeth and around the gums between brushings. It is composed of saliva, food and bacteria. Plaque is the cause of cavities and periodontal disease when it is poorly controlled. If one lets plaque accumulate, it hardens with the minerals in our saliva and becomes tartar.

If plaque can be controlled through good dental hygiene, tartar is more stubborn and requires a more effective treatment and your hygienist will perform a descaling during your regular cleaning examination. The feeling of a greater demarcation between your teeth after this appointment? It is the plaque and tartar that have been removed by your hygienist.

Plaque is not to be confused with occlusal plaque (a.k.a. night guard), which is an acrylic mouth guard molded to the shape of our jaw and worn at night to control tooth friction (bruxism), among other things...

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Root planing? subgingival scaling? Why do I have to come more often to have my teeth cleaned?

As periodontal disease progresses beyond gum inflammation (gingivitis), bacteria and tartar gain ground under the gum and against the root of our teeth. The gums that are still inflamed are now infected, in some cases they can disappear and reveal the root of the teeth, some teeth can loosen up and even fall out. Before this point is reached, it is still possible to intervene and control the periodontal disease. Of course, this requires good dental hygiene, which is more essential than ever, but it is not enough. To fight what is now periodontitis, it is also necessary to use the expertise of your dental hygienist and dentist to remove this tartar that has penetrated under the gum and thus control or even stop its progression.

This battle againts tartar requires regular and frequent subgingival scaling by the hygienist: it must be performed every 3 to 4 months, otherwise the tartar will build up again and the disease will progress. In more serious cases, the dentist will propose to proceed with root planing, which consists in flattening the base of the teeth under the gum in order to make it more difficult for bacteria and tartar to settle there. He may also recommend periodontal surgery to reduce the pockets around the teeth so that the tartar can no longer settle in.

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Is a bad alignment of the teeth (bad occlusion or crooked smile) serious? What are the consequences?

A misalignment of the teeth in both children and adults is a visible symptom of a lack of space on a jaw or a bad occlusion, i.e. a poor interlocking of the teeth of the lower and upper jaws.

In an ideal world, our teeth have enough space to grow and be perfectly aligned and in contact with each other. However, sometimes, for different reasons such as genetics, or premature loss of milk teeth, or following an accident or because of bad habits (such as thumb sucking for example), our teeth grow crooked or our jaws are not arranged as they should be (receding chin or excessively advanced).

In addition to the aesthetic aspect of an crooked smile that can lead to a problem of self-esteem, other consequences, such as the inability to clean some teeth properly, premature tooth movement and wear, headaches or back pain, snoring, halitosis... are common. When a misalignment of the teeth is noticed, it is important to consult your dentist in order to establish a game plan to minimize its consequences in the short and long term.

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What are the advantages of crowns and bridges made in a single appointment?

Traditionally, crowns, veneers and bridges use to require several appointments: the first to take the impressions of your mouth and make a plaster model and then install a temporary crown, the second to install the permanent crown made in an external laboratory and manufactured from the model. The crown in a single appointment is manufactured on site while you are waiting, using computer modeling and design software and machining center to create and manufacture the restoration (CAD/CAM).

The technologies used for this treatment (the most common are CEREC and PlanScan, which is also known as E4D) involve 3 main elements: a camera to create a 3D model of the area to be treated, graphic design (CAD) software to design the restoration (veneer, inlay, crown or bridge) and finally an automated manufacturing centre (CAM) where a set of cutters cut a ceramic block to the dimensions established by the design software. Once cut, the restoration is placed in the mouth to ensure that the fit is correct. The last step consists in finalizing its color according to the adjacent teeth and then placing the restoration in an oven at high temperature to increase its strength before cementing it in the mouth.

The advantages of this treatment in a single appointment are many: First of all, a great saving of time of course; second, the possibility of making smaller restorations and maintaining better integrity to your teeth; finally, the use of ceramic (instead of a metal-ceramic crown) which more closely resembles the structure (hardness and composition) of our natural teeth. The vast majority of our fixed prosthesis restorations have been carried out since 2011 with this technology.

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What causes bad breath? How to treat it?

Bad breath is caused by bacteria that proceed to the decomposition of food in our mouth. Not only do they produce acid, but they also release malodorous components that create bad breath. This phenomenon that can be amplified by a decrease in the amount of saliva in our mouth. This condition can usually be observed when we wake up or after a meal. It can be easily remedied with good dental hygiene. Smoking is also a common cause of bad breath.

When bad breath, or halitosis, occurs more regularly (even with good dental hygiene and in the absence of tobacco consumption), it may be a symptom of a condition that may require treatment. Infection, cavities or food debris accumulated between the teeth, on the tongue or behind the tonsils are factors that can cause bad breath.

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What are the habits to adopt for a good dental hygiene?

tips for a good dental hygiene

If you have already read other topics in this FAQ, you may have noticed that maintaining a good dental hygiene is an excellent way to prevent a wide range of problems for your mouth and your teeth as well as for your entire body, and that goes for all from 2 to 102 years of age!

There are 3 common pillars for good dental hygiene: (1) brush your teeth regularly, ideally after each mea, with a good brushing technique, using a soft or extra soft toothbrush, (2) floss to clean this tiny space between your teeth and (3) don't forget to attend your regular visits to your favorite dentist for a dental cleaning and exam.

Other habits also improve and facilitate good oral hygiene, such as avoiding foods and drinks that are too sweet, or tobacco products.

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Do you really need to floss?

Yes. Ideally, once a day before going to bed. Why? It's very simple, flossing can reach areas that the toothbrush cannot clean. The surfaces between adjacent teeth touch almost all their length, however, plaque, this film containing saliva, food residue and bacteria builds up there too, and as it is the cause of most of our dental health problems (see tooth decay and gum disease): it must be dislodged as regularly as possible.

If you don't like or have difficulty flossing, there are other tools, such as brushes, that can be the right solution for you. Talk to your hygienist or dentist about this the next time you visit the clinic.

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Why is the clinic not offering amalgam restorations (grey fillings)? Is it because of the mercury?

amalgam restorations

Grey fillings, or amalgams, are a very strong metal alloy that has long been used to make fillings in order to repair a damaged tooth. In addition to its dubious aesthetics, it has the major disadvantage of containing mercury. In the long run, as a result of wear and tear, chewing and rubbing teeth, small amounts of mercury will be released into our mouth. It is estimated that the mercury in our amalgams represents about 1/3 of the small amount that we absorb each day naturally (food, water, air...).

Mercury accumulates in our organs and it is a metal considered to be one of the most dangerous to human health. It represents, among other things, a danger to the development of the embryo and young children. Although Health Canada does not consider dental amalgams to be dangerous to the health of most people, and although no studies have shown beyond any doubt that they are (or not) a danger to our health, we have decided not to take a chance: we do not do amalgam restorations at the clinic.

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What are the advantages of composite material fillings (natural color)?

composite fillings

Composite materials allow very hard and durable restorations that also have the same colour as our teeth. They are made of synthetic resins (acrylates) and various other elements such as quartz and ceramics.

One of the great advantages of composite materials is their ability to fill all kinds of cavities. They therefore do not need to prepare a cavity as large as the other materials to hold it in place.

They are also very useful in cosmetic dentistry to make slight corrections to your teeth without having to remove healthy material.

For larger restorations, we prefer inlays or crowns made in a single appointment with our dental CAD/CAM, digital design system, E4D.

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How often should we brush our teeth every day?

brushing our teeth after each meal: it's a good habit

Ideally, you should brush your teeth after each meal because it is then that the bacteria in your mouth are most active. They take advantage of the influx of food debris and saliva to form plaque and secrete the acids that cause cavities and gum disease.

It is also very important to brush your teeth before bedtime, and always use a good brushing technique. Our dental hygienists are experts in this field and are happy to explain and demonstrate the technique that best suits the skill level of each of our patients, young and old.

For children, the recommended amount of toothpaste to use when brushing teeth varies from the size of a grain of rice for children under 3 years old, to a pea for those under 6 years old.

Remember also that good tooth brushing must be complemented by flossing or brushing between the teeth to clean surfaces that the toothbrush cannot reach.

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Fluoride? What is it used for?

fluoride is a key partner to fight cavities

Fluoride is a mineral that greatly helps preventing tooth decay. Fluoride strengthens the enamel of our teeth, reduces acidity in the mouth and restores minerals that help make teeth more resistant. As such, it is an important active ingredient found in toothpastes and mouthwashes. The fluoride concentrations found in these products do not pose any secondary health risks.

For children, the recommended amount of fluoride toothpaste to use when brushing teeth varies from the size of a grain of rice for children under 3 years old, to a pea for those under 6 years old.

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Dental shocks and injuries in sport: which mouthguard to choose?

choosing the right mouthguard

We love our little (and big) hockey or soccer players! But the practice of such sports can lead to violent shocks that affect the mouth, gums and teeth. Due to their position, the incisors and canines of the upper jaw are the most exposed to this type of accident.

During a violent impact, our teeth may crack, break, move or worse, come out of their cavity altogether. To reduce the risks inherent to these sports, the use of mouthguards is recommended.

However, in addition to effectively protecting teeth, the mouth guard must be compatible with sports practice. It must be well adapted to the mouth, must not cause pain and must allow good breathing.

There are 3 types of mouthguards, in order of comfort: generic, adaptable and custom-made. Ask our dentists and hygienists about which one is best suited for the type of sport activity and level of practice.

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What are the consequences if I miss one or more teeth?

When one or more teeth are missing, the balance of our jaws is broken. The teeth form a set that is coherent when all the teeth are present.

When a tooth is missing, the adjacent ones start to move in the empty space and the opposite tooth, which no longer has the pressure to hold it in its socket, will tend to move and become more at risk of cavities as well.

In addition to the aesthetic aspect in the case of front teeth, all these movements will lead to the following consequences if the missing tooth is not replaced: exposure of the roots of the teeth that migrate and collapse, causing pain and risk of decay; dysfunction in the jaw joints, causing a risk of cracking, buzzing and grinding of the teeth.

There are several possibilities to replace a missing tooth: implant, bridge, partial denture... Our team of dentists will advise you according to your health, needs and lifestyle.

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My teeth are sensitive, what should I do?

sensitive teeth? it may be time to book a dental appointment

Sensitive teeth are a common condition, it can be a temporary pain or on the contrary an indication of a problem that must be corrected to prevent it from getting worse. There are three types of sensitivity: to pressure (when eating for example), to the heat and to the cold.

Sensitivity to chewing can be caused by a crack in the tooth and sensitivity to heat can be a sign of a problem with the pulp of the tooth that may require root canal treatment: in both cases it is prudent to consult your dentist promptly to avoid more serious consequences.

In the case of sensitivity to cold, it is often dental hypersensitivity. It is expected that 25 to 50% of the population will be affected by hypersensitivity at some point. It is a sudden sensation of pain that occurs in the presence of cold or acidity. In this case, using a soft toothbrush and a desensitizing toothpaste helps to solve the problem.

But there can also be several causes of dental hypersensitivity: damaged enamel, gum condition leading to exposure of the tooth root, cracked or broken tooth, bruxism... situations that make softer areas of the tooth exposed to aggression by heat, cold, pressure or acid.

In any case, if this happens to you, don't wait: come and meet our dentists, they will investigate and make the right diagnosis to treat this problem!

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ATM joint ache

Our jaw is composed of 2 bones: the jaw bone at the top, and the mandible at the bottom which is connected to the skull by the temporomandibular joint, or TMJ. This joint, which gives the mandible its ability to move, can become a source of pain and can cause other symptoms such as headache, swelling of the face and neck, difficulty chewing and swallowing...

Often, the cause of this pain has a biomechanical origin in relation to the bone, muscles or ligaments of the jaw. Stress, anxiety, nighttime tooth rubbing (bruxism), an occlusion problem, can cause muscle tension and jaw pain. Joint osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or even jaw cancer can also cause these pains.

In mild cases, taking pain medication, applying a warm compress to the joint and following a soft diet without opening the mouth wide will temporarily ease these pains. It is preferable to come and meet our dentists who have developed expertise in ATM treatment to obtain an appropriate diagnosis and care protocol.

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Why is the mouth dry or pasty?

Having a dry mouth means that saliva secretion is low. There can be multiple reasons for that, such as taking certain medications, smoking, diseases, breathing with the mouth or occasional dehydration.

If it is an occasional problem, trying to breathe less through your mouth, drink more water or eat sugar-free gum will help to solve the problem. In winter, when the air is dry, a humidifier could also help. At all times, maintaining a good oral hygiene is strongly recommended. If it is a more frequent problem, talk to our dentists so that they can diagnose the problem.

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What to do when a tooth is cracked or broken?

Like our bones, our teeth can also break or crack as a result of a shock (or by accidentally biting something hard), too much pressure (see bruxism) or the wear and tear in an area already repaired. In case of breakage, try to keep the broken piece clean and avoid handling the root of the tooth. It is recommended to consult your dentist promptly so that he can assess visible and hidden damage and see if it is possible to reattach the broken piece.

Even in cases of apparently minor damage, it is not advisable to wait before consulting because the structure of your tooth may have been weakened and a larger damage may occur. In addition, pain from pressure or chewing (electric shock sensation) may indicate that the pulp or root is also affected.

For a child's baby tooth or permanent tooth that has not finished growing, your dentist will check the integrity of the adult tooth and propose a temporary repair until the adult tooth has completed its growth. He will then be able to carry out a definitive repair if necessary, taking into account the morphology of the tooth and its neighbours.

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Can misaligned teeth cause headaches?

Yes, a malocclusion problem (misalignment of jaws and teeth) can cause headaches as well as neck and back pain. When our chewing system (which consists of the teeth, jaws, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles that connect them) is unbalanced, the muscles are under tension and can generate peripheral disorders.

These disorders can occur in the head (migraine, visual impairment, ear), neck (stiffness) and back (patients with scoliosis have a higher proportion of occlusion disorders). Bruxism (teeth that grind at night) is often associated with a malocclusion problem and can cause premature tooth wear.

It is possible to rebalance the occlusion of our jaws by restoring the right contact points between the teeth of the lower and upper jaws and by relieving the muscles of the jaw. Feel free to discuss this with your dentist on your next visit and ask for his or her advice.

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What to do if a restoration (a filling) falls?

Sometimes a filling falls off by itself, while eating, for example, as a result of a shock or excessive pressure on the repair. Passing the tongue over the affected tooth will often confirm that there is something different (a hole, a sharp edge...) and some precautions should be taken while waiting to go to the dentist.

Avoid eating on the side of the affected tooth, prefer soft food and also avoid drinks and foods that are too hot or too cold and can cause pain. In all cases, it is recommended to make an appointment with your dentist as soon as possible, as new complications could occur (infection, fracture of the tooth that is weakened, development of cavities). After evaluating the situation and health of the affected tooth, the dentist will propose the most appropriate treatment.

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What are the warning signs of oral cancer?

Cancer of the mucous membranes of the mouth is one of those that can be identified very early, in which case the cure rate is very high. Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that can contribute to this type of cancer.

Symptoms of mucosal cancer usually appear very early in the disease, but can be confused with those of other diseases. The most common ones are a lesion in the mouth or on the lips that does not heal, an outgrowth in the mouth or throat, red and/or white patches, difficulty chewing or swallowing. Deeper cancers (those that affect bone, muscles or nerves) are less frequent and persistent pain in the mouth may be a sign.

A complete list of symptoms and detailed explanations can be found on the Canadian Cancer Society website. If you are concerned, talk to your dentist or doctor so that he or she can get a quick oral cancer screening test.

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Children: when to make the first visit to the dentist? And then?

first child visit to the dentist

The first visit to the dentist can be done between 1 and 2 years of age. The "Ordre des Dentistes du Québec" (ODQ) recommends 6 months after the eruption of the first teeth. This first visit and regular follow-up afterwards will lay the foundation for good oral hygiene and good dental development as a child and later as an adult.

It is important to make this first visit a moment of discovery for the child, in order to establish a bond of trust. One way to do this is to bring your child with you to your dental appointments to familiarize him or her with this new environment that can impress him or her.

During this first and subsequent visits, dental hygiene techniques adapted to your child's age and dentition will be explained and demonstrated in a fun way to make brushing of teeth a pleasant moment and not a chore. This teamwork with the hygienist, dentist, you and your child, through regular visits and daily dental hygiene procedures, will help keep his/her mouth healthy, ensure the proper growth of the teeth and the development of your child's mouth as a whole.

It will be te occasion to monitor the health of the mucous membranes, the presence, blocking or absence of teeth, the positioning and space between them and with the tongue, the development of the jaw and occlusion and the health of the enamel. We will also discuss eating habits and check for the development of cavities.

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Do we need to treat cavities on baby teeth? How to prevent them?

Yes, absolutely! First, because they can be painful for your child; second, because if not treated, they can impact the development of the adult tooth growing underneath and contaminate adjacent teeth, whether permanent or not.

Excess sugar and the milk bottle to fall asleep are the main causes for the appearance of cavities in children (the latter also promoting, as does the use of a pacifier after 3 years, occlusion problems). Baby teeth have a more fragile enamel than adult teeth and must be cared for. The acid produced by bacteria in the mouth when eating food, especially sweet food, settles as a plaque on the teeth and attacks their enamel. This is why it is important to brush them thoroughly in order to strengthen the enamel and with the appropriate amount of fluoridated toothpaste according to the child's age and also to floss according to the dentist's recommendations.

The recommended amount of fluoride toothpaste to use when brushing teeth varies from the size of a grain of rice for children under 3 years old, to a pea for those under 6 years old.

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Does smile whitening damage teeth? And fillings?

No, not by using approved products and a personalized protocol established by your dentist. A preliminary dental examination is recommended to ensure that your mouth is in good health and that the tooth whitening treatment is appropriate in your case (oral health, tooth colour, presence of restorations, etc.). The use of over-the-counter products without prior consultation with a dentist is not recommended for the same reasons.

It should also be noted that whitening products have no effect on restorations (fillings) and porcelain crowns and bridges whose colour will remain unchanged after treatment, unlike the enamel on your teeth. In case of exposed restorations when you smile, you and your dentist can decide how to prevent them from becoming obvious after whitening the natural enamel of your teeth.

Tooth whitening, whether done in the dentist's office or at home, can cause increased sensitivity of teeth and gums. This feeling should disappear quickly, if it does not, you should discuss it with your dentist.

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What is a porcelain veneer?


Porcelain veneers are mainly used to correct a physical or aesthetic problem of the smile (broken, worn, or discoloured tooth, damaged enamel, misaligned teeth, excessive space between teeth...). A veneer is a thin porcelain shell that your dentist designs and installs on your tooth after a preparation to ensure that the veneer adheres properly and looks natural to your smile.

The veneer is prepared based on a 3D model of your smile (computer or molded) and the color of your adjacent teeth. It is then manufactured on site, from this model, while you wait. In some special cases, your dentist may prefer to have it performed by an external laboratory.

Since the color of a facet cannot be changed, if you plan to whiten your smile, it is better to do so before having your porcelain veneers done.

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Smile makeover? What is that?

Smile makover is a combination of several types of cosmetic dentistry treatments designed to improve the appearance of the smile. Depending on the objective and the state of the teeth and gums, this transformation can be accomplished by performing one or more procedures such as adding composite material, placing veneers, installing implants and/or crowns, whitening teeth or remodeling the gums.

The length and relative proportion of your teeth, the line of your smile (the one that connects the lower teeth of your upper jaw) are among the aesthetic elements taken into account by your dentist for the transformation of your smile.

The planning and choice of treatments is based on the smile you want to obtain, on your state of health. The goal will be to obtain a harmonious, balanced and natural result that matches your face, hair and personality. During planning, the dentist may make temporary models and composites and use various 3D imaging methods to give you the opportunity to evaluate what the final result will be.

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Traditional orthodontics vs. transparent gutters (ClearCorrect, Invisalign, SureSmile...), how to choose?

choosing the right orthodontics treatment

Orthodontics aims to correct the position of the teeth on the jaw to allow them to grow, align properly with each other and function normally. The traditional approach uses boxes glued to the teeth and wires stretched between these boxes (commonly called "braces"). These light but constant forces on the teeth allow them to be gradually repositioned. The traditional orthodontic approach can correct all malocclusion problems.

The approach using transparent trays is more aesthetic during the treatment because it is less visible, as the transparent trays cover all the teeth. These gutters are changed at regular intervals to move the teeth gradually. This approach is well suited to correcting teeth that overlap or are too far apart, but does not provide as much precision, flexibility or amplitude of correction as traditional orthodontics. In addition, it is limited to the treatment of permanent teeth.

A detailed analysis of your orthodontic needs is necessary to determine which of these methods is most appropriate for your case.

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What are the advantages of dental implants?

A dental implant is made of a metal root that is... implanted in the jawbone (in the location of the tooth it replaces) and a ceramic crown or bridge (in the case of several missing adjacent teeth) that is screwed to this root. The main advantage of the implant is that it replaces a natural tooth almost identically and keeps your mouth balanced.

Without an implant, the void left by the missing tooth will, over time, cause the adjacent and antagonistic teeth to move into this empty space; bone loss in this area is also to be expected, with all the possible complications in terms of mouth balance, chewing ability, tooth loss or facial appearance to name but the most important. Once properly placed, the implant is a very reliable long-term solution.

In rare cases, placing implants may not be recommended. Your dentist will do all the necessary tests to determine if this is a good solution for you. He will carry out a thorough examination and 3D modeling of your mouth so that you can make the best possible decision.

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Do you need to have your wisdom teeth removed?

wisdom teeth

It's often wiser indeed! With the evolution of our diet, dental hygiene and jaw morphology, they have lost their usefulness and can have a negative influence on neighbouring teeth. Because of the lack of space in our jaws, they tend to push their neighbours to make room for themselves and sometimes cause the loss of adjacent teeth. They can also cause gum inflammation, occlusion problems and chewing discomfort.

If your wisdom teeth cause one or more of these symptoms, your dentist will suggest that you have them removed. This is a simple surgical procedure that is performed under local anesthesia. Once the extraction is complete, you will need to follow a simple postoperative protocol to avoid the risk of infection and minimize the pain and discomfort you may experience in the hours following the procedure. Your dentist will follow up with you to ensure that the healing process is proceeding normally.

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My dentist suggests a root canal treatment? Why don't you just pull the tooth out instead?

root canal treatment

Root canal treatment is recommended when the pulp of a tooth becomes ill as a result of a deep cavity, pulpitis or necrotic tooth. If your dentist suggests root canal treatment, it is because he or she hopes to "save" all or at least a significant part of your tooth. A devitalized tooth, i.e. a tooth whose roots have been filled according to the best practices for root canal treatment (endodontics) and whose crown has been repaired (by installing a ceramic crown over it), can remain in your mouth for many years and play its full part.

When extracting the tooth, it has to be replaced by a dental implant or bridge. Indeed, extracting a tooth without filling the empty space between adjacent teeth will lead to problems with the surrounding teeth (displacement, loosening) and bone loss, not to mention aesthetic and functional problems (difficulty in chewing, food getting stuck between the teeth) in the more or less long term.

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What are the advantages and disadvantages of a removable dental prosthesis (partial and dentures)?

removable dental prosthesis

A removable prosthesis, also called a partial prosthesis (when it replaces only a few teeth) or dentures is a set of false teeth made in the laboratory from a mold of your mouth. These teeth are mounted on a resin support that is placed on the jaw. It has three main advantages: first of all, this type of prosthesis can be produced in a relatively short time compared to implant placement, for example, and secondly, a removable prosthesis can be a good solution in the event of significant bone loss that makes implant placement impossible.

In terms of disadvantages, it should be noted that the hooks used to hold a removable prosthesis on adjacent teeth can, in the long run, cause significant damage requiring treatment or even extraction of these teeth. The alveolar bone that supports natural teeth, being less challenged by the removable prosthesis than it use to be by holding these natural teeth, will also tend to resorb, requiring regular adjustment of the prosthesis to adhere properly to the gum and hold it firmly in place; if the adhesion is not perfect, chewing and speech can be difficult. This resorption of the alveolar bone will also have the consequence of no longer making it possible to place implants in the future. Finally, it should be noted that removable prostheses have an average life span of 5 to 10 years.

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Is it possible to yawn so hard it hurts one's jaw joint? And what can be done in case of (TMJ) joint disorders?

sensitive teeth? it may be time to book a dental appointment

A yawn that is a little too intense may cause pain in the jaw joint (a.k.a. temporomandibular joint or TMJ). It is during this exercise that we request a maximum opening of our mouth, which in turn can cause a temporomandibular dislocation. This blockage of the joint can be resolved on its own... or not! It is always prudent to seek a professionnal advice quickly if this happens, as it reflects a fragility in your TMJ. Without reaching this point, other symptoms can also highlight fragility in the TMJ, such as facial, TMJ and ear pain, up to migraine, cracking when opening the mouth, a feeling of tired muscle or difficulty chewing.

There is a whole range of care adapted to each TMJ problem that your dentist and your doctor can recommend, once the correct diagnosis has been made (occlusion problem, joint displacement, arthritis, joint hypermobility, etc.).

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Does grinding teeth while sleeping wear them out?

Yes, but not only that. Bruxism, i. e. grinding teeth while sleeping, is an unconscious action. Early tooth wear at the contact points is a visible consequence (mainly on the incisors that appear leveled); a permanent headache or jaw pain can also be symptoms of bruxism. In the most severe cases, bruxism can cause a tooth fracture and disorders in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and jaw muscles.

Since this is an unconscious phenomenon, it is currently difficult to treat bruxism: its harmful effects can only be reduced. Wearing an occlusal plate (a.k.a. nightguard) adapted to your jaw and adjusted by your dentist is an effective solution. Made of a thin, durable material, this prosthesis fits your teeth and allows you to maintain the normal functions of your mouth during the night (swallowing, tongue and jaw movement, breathing, etc.), while protecting your teeth from excessive pressure and unwanted jaw movements. Feel free to ask your dental team for advice about balanced occlusal plaques against bruxism.

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Is it painful to have a permanent tooth removed? What are the consequences to be expected?

The time of using pliers to pull out a tooth or having it attached to the door handle is long gone! Today, the avulsion of a tooth (it is the learned name for a tooth that is pulled out) is a routine and almost painless procedure. First of all, precautions are taken upstream to avoid complications following this procedure. It is not recommended to remove a tooth in case of inflammation or acute rhinogenic sinusitis, during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, when taking anticoagulant drugs or special treatments (chemotherapy, radiotherapy). During the procedure, the dentist performs a local anaesthesia to remove the pain in the treated area. Once the tooth is removed from its socket, it will put in place a temporary dressing to stop the bleeding and facilitate coagulation.

A protocol of light care and precautions to be taken will then be given to you to promote good healing. In case of complications (bleeding or prolonged pain, hematoma, inflammation, loss of blood clot...), you should quickly contact your dentist to inform him/her. After healing, it will be necessary to consider replacing this tooth and thus avoid functional (migration of adjacent teeth and the antagonist tooth) and aesthetic problems caused by its absence.

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What precautions are taken to reduce radiation doses during dental radiography?

3D digital radiology

First of all, technology helps us a lot. For more than 10 years, digital radiography, which uses very sensitive digital sensors linked to sophisticated radiographic image analysis software, has made it possible to significantly reduce the radiation dose required for dental radiography. Thanks to these digital sensors, this dose, already lower than that the one from natural radiation during a day, has been reduced from 20% to 80% depending on the type of dental radiography. In addition to this major technological change, other precautions are in place to ensure compliance with Health Canada standards: our radiography equipement and operatories are inspected every year to make sure they remain compliant and safe to operate.

When taking X-rays, a lead apron is also positionned to protect sensitive areas of the body. This precaution has been deemed to be no longer necessary by Heath Canada when using digital X-rays equipment due to the lower radiation doses and the channelling of the beam to a specific area, however, we continue to use it systematically.

Finally, thanks to digital technology once again, it is easy to store and share radios. Thus, when changing dentists or referring to a specialist, X-ray exams can be easily shared between these professionals, once the patient's consent has been obtained. Better management of these radios also reduces the need to take new radios, as long as there is no change in oral health status.

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Why is sugar bad for our teeth?

sugar and teeth: not the bests of friends

To have a sweet tooth, there are many of us in this case. However, succumbing to a delicacy without good oral hygiene can be disastrous for our teeth. Indeed, when we eat a food or drink a beverage containing sugar, the bacteria in our mouth use it to produce an acid that attacks the enamel of our teeth.

This short video in French (new window) is very well done to explain to the youngest (and the grown ups too) how this acid attacks the enamel of our teeth and, if we are not careful, cause us a cavity.

Sugars added to desserts, candies, juices or soft drinks are fast sugars that do not give us an impression of satiety, unlike the slow sugars found in foods such as pasta, cereals, vegetables... However, the bacteria in our mouths do not make any difference and feed equally on both kinds of sugar. The acid they produce attacks the enamel and digs micro-holes into which it infiltrates. If we are not careful, soon the dentin under the enamel and then the pulp of the tooth will in turn be attacked by decay, and then it hurts a lot... So, remember to brush your teeth, floss and don't miss your dental hygiene follow-up appointments!

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How tobacco affects oral health and our smile?


Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of cancers of the oral cavity (mouth, tongue and throat). It is estimated that smokers are 20 times more exposed to these types of cancer than non-smokers. Smoking also increases the aggressiveness of plaque bacteria, increasing by a factor of 5 the risk of gum disease among smokers. Tobacco is also a risk factor that reduces the chances of success and delays healing following dental surgery procedures such as implant placement, tooth extraction or grafts.

Tobacco contributes to tooth yellowing and bad breath as well as altering our taste and smell. Making the decision to quit smoking will have rapid beneficial consequences on these last three points. Within a few days you will notice an improvement in breath as well as your sense of taste and smell. Within a few months, the oral mucosa recovers and improves; it is estimated that it takes about a year in the absence of other risk factors for gum health to be normal. The risk of cancer of the oral cavity will also gradually decrease over several years.

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My teeth are stained, how can I clean them?

stained teeth

Teeth are naturally of a homogeneous and uniform color. Sometimes dark spots appear. Repeated consumption of coffee, red wine, dark soft drinks or tobacco as well we taking certain medications can cause stains to appear. Good dental hygiene and the use of appropriate products recommended by your dentist can control this phenomenon. When these stains present an uncomfortable aesthetic problem, the dentist may advise, if your oral health is suitable (absence of cavities and gum disease), to proceed with bleaching.

It also happens that a child's permanent teeth are stained white as soon as they appear; the causes are not well known. This is called hypocalcification and gives the affected areas a greater porosity, which can lead to greater sensitivity and cavities. These areas also have less adhesion for the adhesive used to hold dental fillings in place. If necessary, your dentist will remove them. These stains can also be removed during adolescence, for aesthetic reasons, when the permanent teeth are in place.

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How to correct jaw bone loss?

keeping a good dental hygiene throughout life is important

Osteoporosis, often associated with aging, poorly treated periodontal disease, accidental fracture, free space resulting from the loss of unreplaced teeth or infection of the jaw are the most common causes of bone loss. It is characterized by a deterioration in bone quality: its density is lower, its ability to hold our teeth in the jaw deteriorates, teeth become mobile, our dentures become poorly fitted and implant placement is impossible.

A good oral hygiene is essential, as is the intake of calcium, vitamin D and fluoride to strengthen bones, teeth and gums throughout our lives and prevent this type of problem. If prevention is insufficient, a bone graft can be performed if the preliminary examinations are conclusive. This is done by removing a small amount of bone (the graft) that is placed to restore volume and density to the jaw after healing. This entire process takes several weeks and several follow-up appointments to ensure its success.

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What is a gum graft?

gum graft

The attached gum is the pale pink part that perfectly covers the base of our teeth. One of its functions is to help keep the teeth firmly in place. Sometimes the pressure we exert on our teeth will tend to gradually detach this gum which will retract.

When the gums retract and reveal the root of our teeth, the teeth become more sensitive and their roots are exposed to bacterial attacks that cause cavities. Even in the absence of symptoms, there may also be an aesthetic problem with teeth that appear too long. To remedy a gum recession (also called tooth loosening), it is possible to perform a gum graft to restore the attached gum and cover these loosened teeth.

There are several types of grafts (free or conjunctive tissue). Connective tissue grafting consists of removing a graft from under the palate and covering the area where the teeth are loosened in order to restore thickness, height and strength to the gums. This type of transplant, which leaves a smaller wound on the palate than the free transplant, has the advantage of having a faster healing time than the free transplant. This is a very fast procedure, with little discomfort and an excellent long-term success rate.

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How to choose the right device against bruxism?

Bruxism is the condition that causes us to clench and rub our teeth together while we sleep and can cause muscle pain, tooth fractures and premature wear. There are several types of devices, called occlusal plates or nightguards, that control bruxism. These occlusal plates are shaped to match the morphology of our mouth and teeth and to protect the chewing system - teeth, gums, jaws, muscles and joints. Occlusal plates can be manufactured for the upper arch, lower arch or both.

There are balanced rigid occlusal plates and unbalanced soft or rigid occlusal plates. Unbalanced plates only protect against tooth wear and pressure, they do not protect the joint and muscle tension associated with bruxism, which has repercussions elsewhere in our body, such as headaches and back pain. Only the balanced rigid occlusal plates ensure all protections simultaneously.

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What are the precautions to take in dental health during pregnancy?

Hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy sometimes lead to direct and indirect dental health problems. Direct, because it is often observed that gums are more sensitive (with increased risk of bleeding) and that plaque increases in pregnant women. Indirect, because hormonal changes sometimes induce changes in eating habits (quantity and types of products consumed), which in turn will influence the development of plaque; nausea accompanied by frequent vomiting can also have the effect of weakening tooth enamel. It is therefore particularly important to maintain healthy dental hygiene habits during pregnancy and, in particular, to control the risk of periodontal disease.

From a dental care perspective, your dentist and his team must be informed of your pregnancy at your next visit. Certain non-urgent treatments that could affect your pregnancy, such as tooth whitening or changing a mercury-containing amalgam for example will have to be differed. The first three months of pregnancy are the most important months in terms of dental care precautions, which is why it is recommended to plan dental care beforehand, if you have the opportunity.

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Erosion of tooth enamel, how it occurs and what can be done?

tooth enamel erosion

Enamel, which forms the outer layer of our teeth, is the hardest substance in our body. However, it sometimes deteriorates and in this case, one becomes more likely to develop cavities, because the enamel does not regenerate itself.

Enamel erosion is caused by the acid that is created in the mouth by the action of the bacteria on the food and beverages we consume, especially sweet foods and soft drinks, energy and fruit drinks. Gastric reflux and medications that cause the mouth to dry out (saliva helps us defend against these acids) can also cause enamel erosion. Erosion can also be caused by accident, with an overly aggressive tooth brushing technique for example. This erosion is characterized by yellowed teeth, translucent at the ends.

Good dental hygiene helps to control the acids in our mouths and protect the enamel of our teeth. Upstream, there are simple actions that also help a lot, such as avoiding acidic foods and avoiding snacking often, as this stimulates acid production.

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What are the types of anesthesia for dental care?

Before performing anesthesia during your dental appointment, your dentist must ensure that you do not have any allergies or drug contraindications. Conscious sedation is used to soothe a particularly anxious patient, while local anesthesia is used to reduce the pain experienced during dental treatment. The latter is the most common form of anesthesia. It is generally practiced in the vicinity of the site where the treatment is to take place.

Local anesthesia is done in two stages: the first stage involves the application of a gel that will numb the area to be anesthetized; the second stage involves injecting the local anesthetic into the tissues, which is painless for the patient following the prior application of the gel. Its effects dissipate after a few hours, and during this period it may be difficult to talk or eat. You may also have the feeling that your lips do not close. These are completely normal consequences and will disappear after a few hours. However, care must be taken during this period when the anaesthesia is still active so as not to injure oneself, as the pain will go unnoticed at first.

Dental Videos

Dental Cavities

Digital X-Rays

Periodontal Scaling

Consequences of malocclusion

Smile Makeover

Dental Implants

Bleeding Gums


Palatal Expansion

Crowns In 1 Appointment

Consequence of Tooth Extraction